Center for Health Literacy Promotion Blog
This discussion paper commissioned by the IOM Roundtable on Health Literacy
was released yesterday. I always watch for these papers by thought leaders in
the field to see the evolution of health literacy concept, measurement and
am quite disappointed this time.
One statement of fact jumped
out at me right away. The paper
lists an increase in the fertility rate among demographic trends behind the
increasing size and diversity of the population. But, according to the CDC the
US fertility rate is at an all time low. Births declined by 10% last year and
the Census Bureau reports population growth has slowed to its lowest rate in
decades. The authors are correct
that diversity continues to increase. Pew reports the number of immigrants in
the country doubled to 46 million between 1990 and 2013. (But the Pew Hispanic
Center announced in April 2012 that immigration from Mexico has stopped and
perhaps even reversed.) Diversity of cultures and language is indeed a
challenge for the healthcare system that adds urgency to health literacy
The concept of health literacy
presented in the paper seems confused. First health literacy is presented as a
cognitive deficit that leaves patients “unable
to understand and act on health information”,
placing the problem in patients and assuming it is intractable, therefore
requiring clinicians to over come or manage the problem. The approach is
necessarily information-centered and provider-centered, not patient-centered.
The authors also note that WHO considers health literacy a personal and
community asset, but seem not to notice this is contrary to their discussion
focused on low health literacy as a risk to patients and the system. Recommended universal
precautions are not sufficiently “on the ground” to
change practice and represent long held heath education principles (e.g.
educate using plain language, do a learning needs assessment).There is an
implied assumption that universal precautions, overseen by a new office in
healthcare organizations, is the whole solution. These precautions are common sense, but they are insufficient to
address true cognitive impairment in the elderly population, or to overcome what Doak Doak and Root described as gaps in logic,
language and experience, the origin of provider/patient communication problems
with both native and foreign-born patients.
The authors suggest that
efforts to develop an organization’s employees' health
literacy skills (knowledge of negative
impacts of low health literacy in patients, employee-employee communication)
can "empower communities to be active partners in their care.” This is faulty thinking. Establishing the attitude that patients are incapable of understanding and acting on
information, and so unable to learn and do what is needed to cope, recover, and
improve health, disempowers patients and providers alike, makes
patients unnecessarily dependent on professionals, and perpetuates the problem.
The authors close with a call for "trusted partnerships” between providers and patients; that requires
providers to trust patients. As long as we say that
what we need to make the healthcare system work is a smarter patient, we are
One more thing: Americans spend
about one hour per year in a clinical setting. What about health literacy in
the other 8764 hours?
Today volunteers are out all
over Seattle and King County. It's MLK Day, a national Day of Service in memory
of Dr King and his teaching that “Life's most persistent and urgent question is, 'What
are you doing for others?”
My friend and co-author Liz
Moore (aka the data whisperer) and I worked with folks fromCityFruit. Since 2008 this group has been promoting cultivation
of urban fruit to nourish people, build comity and protect the climate. Last year they tended,
harvested and distributed 6500 pounds of fruit grown on trees in Seattle city
and I worked on a hillside up behind the Amy Yee Tennis Center is south
Seattle. It turns out there are 30 some very mature long neglected apple and pear trees there,
perhaps a former orchard. City Fruit's 5 year plan includes rescuing the trees
from ivy, blackberry and underbrush, restoring them to productivity, and
sharing the harvest with neighbors and local food banks, and selling some to Seattle
restaurants to sustain the operation. Liz and I rescued three apple trees nearly strangled
by ivy and blackberry. And we learned something about our city, met some of our
fellow citizens and left the world a little better place. Thanks, Dr. King, for the inspiration and
leadership. Thanks to UW
and United Way of King Countyfor organizing the day of service. Thanks to all who
serve, and all who accept service. ss
If you have not see the
new Beginnings Pregnancy Guide, and the new Beginnings Guia para
Embarrazo, and the new Beginnings Parents Guide, take a look! Great new photos. All content checked and updated. A scan code instantly links your mobile device to new sections of BeginningsGuides.com direct
from the Guides. For parents
there are Pregnancy Resources and Parents Resources that we have investigated
and found to be reliable, easy to use and free of advertising. You service
providers will find lots of useful tools in the Resources for Beginnings Users
section. Also in 2013, we closed
the warehouse so now all our printing, inventory management and fulfillment are
in one place, at ColorGraphics Seattle. If you distribute Beginnings by mail,
we can print your envelopes, address, stuff
and mail them and manage returns.
What a Special Edition with program specific content and your program name on
it? We can do that, too.
had 50,000 visitors. 2000-4000 of you read the blogs
each month. And we have
900 Twitter followers.
blogsNotes from the Field CenteringPregnancy, Promoting Maternal Health
Literacy“Health Illiteracy” is Not a Disease
Promoting Health Literacy Nationally &
Cape Town, South Africa April 17-19, 2013
got to keynote the first conference on Building Children’s
Nursing for Africa organized by Univeristy of Cape Town School of Nursing and
Red Cross Children’s Hospital. My theme:empowering mothers for health. Now I am delighted to be serving as a guest
editor with Prof. Minette Cootzee for a special edition of South Africa’s national
nursing journal Curation is
featuring 12 articles from the conference.
Vancouver, BC, Canada May 1-4, 2013
I participated in an invitational international workshop that
initiated a new “knowledge hub” at
University of British Columbia. The consensus was that health literacy involves
patient, provider and system. I argued that this formula includes the provider
and the providers’context (the system) but
omits the patient’s social context. View
participants’ brief videos on health
Bozeman, MT, USA August
I got to keynote the Montana State Early Childhood Council’s
first Family Support Summit.
Theme: promoting maternal health literacy through home visiting. In
March 2014 I will return to MT to work with all staff of Ravelli Head Start in Hamilton, MT whose director Kristin
Segall recognized at the Summit that “Health
literacy is everybody’s job.”
Washington DC, October 26-28, 2013
Sydney, Australia November 26-29.
I was awarded a travel scholarship
to attend University of Sydney’s conference on health
literacy and participate in the second meeting of the Worldwide Universities Health Literacy Network. I participated with a group of
academics and patient representatives to plan an international collaboration on
developing health literacy as a community asset. That is just getting underway.
Health Literacy Training Videos Take 2
On to 2014. I so appreciate your partnership in serving mothers,
foundation of a healthy society. SS
It was my great good fortune to attend two International
multidisciplinary meetings of Health literacy researchers, practitioners
and policy makers sponsored by the Worldwide Universities Network. I
have previously reported on the May 2012 meeting at University of
Southampton, England. That meeting was dominated by Europeans and
characterized by lively debate that fleshed out themes and urgent
The second meeting took place in late November 2013 at University of
Sydney. The location attracted the Australian experts and was notably
influenced by the routine participation of consumer representatives in
healthcare, research, policy making, and fittingly in this meeting. I
was glad to reconnect with a number of researchers I met in Southampton.
Our purpose in Sydney was to formulate international collaborative
projects. The group of about 25 divided itself by interest area using
themes that emerged from the first meeting. Noting that project groups
were forming around research questions related to measurement, medical
education, and disease-specific questions, I proposed "health promotion
approach" as an alternative. That attracted four academics and three
consumer reps from Australia and the Netherlands who work with various
populations (e.g. Lebanese, Vietnamese, Dutch, Aboriginal). We want to
learn who are the "gatekeepers" of health in families and communities;
how have they been identified; and how have they been or how could they
be engaged to determine what supports individual and collective health
literacy. We will necessarily start with a lit review. Stay tuned. And
put Bondi Beach, a suburb of Sydney, on your bucket list.
Part 1 Maternal health
literacy as skills
A life skill
is a collection of skills necessary for full participation in everyday life.
Maternal health literacy is a life skill that mothers use to manage personal
and child health and healthcare.
It has been defined as the
cognitive & social skills that determine a mother’s motivation and ability
to act on information in ways that improve health (Renkert and Nutbeam, 2000).
Cognitive skills are used to
understand information; they include basic literacy skills, reading and
numeracy (ability to use numbers). A mother might use these basic skills to
learn about ear aches, and make an appointment to take her child to see a clinician.
So basic literacy skills are the essential foundation for health literacy.
Social skills are used to make
personal meaning from information, including speaking and listening. The mother
whose child has an ear ache uses these skills when she discusses with the
clinician the information on ear aches to understand why her child has them and
how she might prevent them.
Reflective skills combine
cognitive and social skills to think critically, make choices, formulate plans,
and take action. The mother in our
example uses reflective skills when she mulls over what the doctor said, what
she read, her experience of her child’s ear ache, her actions and parenting
practices, and her discussion with her mother about treatment options and
possible preventive measures. Some literacy scholars say that reflective skills
are so essential to applying information in context that it should be
classified as a basic skill. So we could say there are 4Rs: reading, ‘riting,
‘rithmatic, and reflection.
Health literacy means
empowerment (WHO 2013)
A health literate mother
combines all these skills to make health related choices and transform those
choice into desired action and outcomes. That is the World Bank’s definition of
empowerment. Say the mother
chooses to stop putting her baby to bed with a bottle. She takes that step, and
she enjoys her desired outcome, a happy ear-ache free baby. We say this mother
is empowered for health.
Her health literacy skills
enable her to minimize risk, maximize protective factors, and optimize health
promotion. In this way, a mother’s health literacy forms the foundation for her
health and her child’s health throughout their lives.
Many factors, in addition to
skills, interact to determine a woman’s maternal health literacy. More on that
I’ve been in Washington
DC where I co-presented a workshop at CenteringHealthcare Institute’s fourth
national conference. I was drawn to this organization the first time I read
their motto: Transforming care through
(CP) is a rapidly spreading model of group prenatal care.
Eight to 12 women with similar due dates have their prenatal visits together.
Each has the usual individual health assessment with an obstetrician or midwife
in the group space. Meanwhile the rest of the group engages in “self-care”;
they weigh themselves, take their own blood pressures and chart the data. They can read their own lab results and
ultrasound reports. The rest of their 1.5 -2 hour appointment is dedicated
to education and support through
facilitated group discussion and activities.
and processes are the same as for conventional individual prenatal care. The
schedule of visits and core content follow ACOG* guidelines.
founder and CEO, midwife Sharon Rising, emphasizes, “Content should not get in
the way of process.” The women talk about what they want to talk about. There
are games, activities and multiple ways of learning. Women test out what
they've heard; they explore their cultural beliefs and share sensitive issues
like violence that are only rarely discussed in traditional prenatal care. They
build community and function as a support group.
“March of Dimes wants all mothers to get prenatal care in
CenteringPregnancy,” says Judy Gooding, MOD’s Vice
President for Signature Programs. No wonder.
She describes CP as an
evidence-based program to prevent preterm birth and disparities in infant
health outcomes. MOD’s 2012
Preterm Birth Report card shows the US rate at 11.7% of all births. Among women
in CP the rate is 5.5%. The national low-birth-weight rate is 8.1% compared to
CP meets the Institute
of Medicine’s goals to make healthcare services safe, patient centered,
equitable, timely and efficient.
Participating mothers seem to agree. There is no waiting time, no need
to retell their story to strangers. They build a relationship with the
provider. What they like best is being with other women.
Rising says, “Facilitation is the secret sauce.” Clinician
facilitators are trained not to answer questions or instruct the group, but
rather to elicit the group wisdom and listen to what drives behavior. They come
to understand and appreciate the needs, beliefs, and struggles of the women and
the complexity of their live. Throughout the conference there were reports of
clinicians coming out of CP sessions where they completed the equivalent of
10-12 prenatal visits in 2 hours
beaming and talking in superlatives about their experience.
All this makes group
prenatal care the ultimate environment for promoting maternal health literacy.
I’ve been working for a year with WellPoint, the health insurance giant, to design a pilot to test the
hypothesis that CP promotes MHL as a side effect, and with facilitator
awareness, tools and strategies it can be very effective.More on that next
time. Meanwhile, visit http://www.centeringhealthcare.org/
Stay tuned. ss
FUD: Fear Uncertainty &Doubt. That is the foundation of the
extreme House Republican’ position on the Patient Protection and Affordable
Care Act of 2010. That’s why they
call it Obamacare- in order not to say “protection” or “affordable”; and to hide the fact that the law was
enacted 3 years ago, before the President was soundly re-elected running
against an opponent who vowed to repeal it.
FUD, initially an IBM strategy to eliminate market competitors by
spreading fear uncertainty and disinformation about their products, seems to be
working for the House Republicans. At least to some degree, for now. Polls and
analyses of social media suggest that some people favor the Affordable Care Act
while opposing Obamacare.
Home visitors: “Obama
snoopers” = FUD
I ignored the FUD like a parent ignoring a toddler’s temper
tantrum until I saw the Fox “news report” about the Affordable Care Act’s
expansion of home visitation. That’s
a preventive strategy in which public health nurses, social workers or
trained paraprofessionals connect families to healthcare and community
resources and offer health education and social support. It’s origins date back to the 1800s.
Programs are run by county health departments, school districts, foundations,
and private-public partnerships. Home visiting programs are open to poor
parents who request assistance.
It’s worth noting that in many countries, home visiting has long
been standard for all parents, because they acknowledge that parenting is a
challenge and everyone can use assistance. And because research shows it
improves child developmental outcomes and has immediate and long-term benefits
that extend to entire families and to the healthcare, education and justice
systems. My research shows that parents in home visitation significantly
improve their health literacy, capacity to manage personal and child health and
A Fox announcer and a “business expert” called home visitors
“Obama snoopers”. They said in this “brand new federal program”,
“government home inspectors” make random, unannounced “forced home visits” to snoop on parents. This is not news. This is pure FUD -
disinformation (lies) that specifically intends to instill fear, uncertainty
and doubt about the Affordable Care Act, to prevent people from learning they
can afford good healthcare coverage.
I have worked for decades with home visitors and know them to be
among the most caring, dedicated,
respectful people on the planet, unlike the FUDders on Fox and in the House.
FUD won’t work for long.
Yesterday, the heart of the Affordable Care Act started (keep saying the real
name), opening access to healthcare for millions of poor and uninsured
citizens. Almost 3 million people visited www.heathcare.gov. State exchanges were
similarly overwhelmed. People are
about to find out that the Affordable Care Act makes good healthcare coverage
affordable -for them. That will help them see through the FUD. Insurance companies are helping too.
They are enrolling people they previously rejected because, with the ACA, it’s
good for business. Healthcare executives are calling for more doctors, nurses
and allied health professionals - doesn’t really sound like a “job-killer” does
On the other hand, the House Republicans just put hundreds of
thousands of people out of work in hopes they can FUD us citizens of the
richest country in the world into continuing denying healthcare to poor people
and sick people in order to preserve the freedom of the rich to get richer.
AHRQ and the journal Demography
report research finding that the more education a mother has, the more time she
spends caring for and playing with her child. This seems to suggest that
education makes the difference, or that less educated mothers are less invested
in their child’s health and development.
More likely it is the advantage that afforded educated mothers
opportunity to go to college and the further advantage that accumulates from
higher education....more money, more resources, more skill, better jobs, more discretionary time and energy.
All these things create more options and opportunities to obtain, understand
and use information and services in ways that enhance personal and child health
- maternal health literacy.
The other side of the coin
is that mothers who have less education come from less advantaged
backgrounds, start with fewer resources and opportunities, are relegated to low
paying jobs, and work more and to earn less.
I was a single
mother with a high school education and few marketable skills. I worked three part time jobs - one to
pay childcare so I could work the other two to pay the rent and take a course
here and there. It took 12 years
to get my BA while working full time. I was in my 50s by the time I could
afford a PhD. My daughter got less attention than I wanted to give her. So the reports are right -- until they
say that educated mothers “invest
more time” in their children than
less educated mothers.
If you don’t have money, you have to invest more time for your child than with your child. Less educated mothers are no less invested in
their children. Lack of income and education prevents parents from making the
kinds of investments they want to make in their children. I hope economist James Heckman is right
when he argues that it is the quality of parenting, more than the number of
parents, their income or education that determines outcomes for children. But
that, too, is an over simplified argument.
AHRQ Research Reports Sept 2013
Kahil A, Ryhan R, & Corey M
(2012) Demography 49 pp 1361-1383
Heckman, James J. (2013) Giving Kids a Fair Chance (A Strategy That Works) MIT Press,
Cambridge, Mass. ISBN
beget skills. Cognitive and social skills needed to successfully manage
personal and child health and healthcare are those needed for success in life
across cultures. They are skills that empower people to be what they want to be, to make
choices and transform those choices into desired actions and outcomes.
These life skills develop most easily
in early childhood given a stable supportive family environment. Disparity in
brain development in children growing in disadvantaged vs enriched environments
becomes apparent in the first year.
Quality of family life matters more than the number of parents, their
income or education. But poverty and accumulated disadvantage prevent parents
from doing their best to sustain the stimulating home environments that support
optimal development, especially when they themselves lack skills, resources and
role models. Early intervention --- early childhood education, parenting
training, family support and home visitation programs--- can produce positive
and lasting effects on children in disadvantaged families.
Nobel Laureate and economics
professor James Heckman, makes the business case for shifting public policy to
support programs that offer parents information, choices and assistance. Promoting health literacy means
providing direct supplemental assistance that specifically and intentionally
enables parents to develop and hone the range of life skills used to
participate in healthcare and manage personal and family health at home.
Must read: Heckman, James J. (2013) Giving Kids a Fair Chance (A Strategy That Works) MIT Press,
Cambridge, Mass. ISBN
In addition to Heckman’s monograph,
the book includes illuminating commentary by 10 experts from multiple
My favorite feature of the upcoming 9th edition of the Pregnancy Guide recognizes it is a
digital world. You told us that you and your families need print materials
since few in your caseloads have computer access or devices to use digital
information. Other surveys confirm you’re right.
Poverty and the
In December 2010, 40% of US households, did not have a broadband connection in the
home. Lack of access is a marker
of poverty. Mississippi is the poorest state and has the highest proportion of
households without access, 65%. Similar rates of poverty and no-access are
found in AR, TN, WV and OK.
Compare to wealthy states led by HI with 74% connected, only 26% with
no-access. In cities, there is
commonly low access in the urban core suffering poverty while the wealthy
suburbs are fully wired.
Still, people find a
way to get online
In a survey of over 2000 Mississippi households, 79% said someone in the home had used
the Internet. Outside locations included school, workplaces and the local
library. In some libraries, free
internet service is the biggest draw into the building.
reasons for having no access at home were cost and lack of equipment, but the
key reason seemed to be lack of understanding of the value of the Internet. an
aspect of low health literacy. Of
those without access, 46% said they didn’t need it or were not interested. Others, especially younger, less
educated, low income adults said they mostly go online using their smartphones.
Access in steadily
A February 2011 survey found 68% of households with a
connection, suggesting significant growth in just a few months. Some of the most rural areas seem to be
improving quickly; but the South has shown only modest improvement. The Obama
administration has directed billions of economic stimulus dollars to increase
Internet access. And some companies have just begun offering low-cost broadband
connection to families with a child who qualifies for free school lunch.
information is part of health literacy
Any family expecting a baby has a need for information. Beginnings Pregnancy Guide is
intentionally focused on essential health behavior topics directly linked to
pregnancy outcomes. Some parents want to know more.
New Resources for
Mothers coming to www.BeginningsGuides.comFor those who do have Internet access, and to motivate those
who don’t to find a way, the new 2014 edition of Beginnings Pregnancy Guide
includes this icon to encourage readers to visit the new Resources for
Mothers pages of www.BeginningsGuides.com. The new section provides links to
information and resources from reliable sources that Beginnings Guides staff have reviewed and found easy to use. This reduces the need for advanced searching and evaluation
skills. We envision the new Resources for Mothers as an easy entry into online
self-directed learning about health and an opportunity for parents to improve
their health literacy.